cour-age   pronunciation: [kur-ij]


        The courageous man is one who acts to fulfill a noble end in the face of a truly fearful danger, yet moderates his fear to the danger of the situation. (Aristotle, Nicomacheon Ethics, Book III)


Core Components of a Courageous Act:

• Good moral intentions of agent – intended consequences

• Dangerous circumstances

• Personal risk and “safety” – if failure

• Altruistic and meritorious intent

• Beyond “call of duty”

• Done voluntarily - Neither obligatory nor forbidden

• Omission of act is not “wrong” or deserving of sanctions


--Jaworski & Peter

The courageous person is the one who has learnt not to let fear paralyze him, not to get panic-stricken, not to lose his head because of fear, but to act coolly when facing danger, in short: he has learnt not to let fear obscure his judgment as to what is the right course of action for him. (Wright, 1963, p. 148)